G-FIND Tracking Module

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Definitions for terms used in G-FINDER



Term used in G-FINDER Definition
Contraceptive An instrument, apparatus, appliance, device, drug or combination intended to be used specifically to prevent pregnancy.
Ultra-short/immediate- acting contraceptive drug
On-demand contraceptive drug that requires action at the time of intercourse for efficacy, e.g. emergency contraception.
Short-acting contraceptive drug
Contraceptive drug that works for <1 year but does not require action at the time of intercourse, e.g. injectable hormones.
Long-acting contraceptive drug
Contraceptive drug that works for >1 year.
Permanent contraceptive
Irreversible contraceptive method.
Contraceptive device
An instrument, apparatus, appliance, implant or other similar or related article intended to be used to control contraception, e.g. condoms or diaphragms.
Combination contraceptive
A product that combines a platform technology or contraceptive device with one or more contraceptive drug/s, e.g. a contraceptive vaginal ring.
G-7 Includes seven highly industrialised nations - France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Japan, United States and Canada.
G-20 Includes developed countries and emerging economies. Members are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Republic of Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. Also includes the European Union.
High-income country In 2015 the World Bank classified as high-income those countries with a 2014 gross national income (GNI) per capita of $12,736 or more. See here for further details.
Innovative developing country (IDC) Developing country with a relatively sophisticated health biotechnology and government-supported R&D sector (e.g. Brazil, China, Cuba, India and South Africa).
Adapted from Hotez et al, The Neglected Tropical Diseases: The Ancient Afflictions of Stigma and Poverty and the Prospects for their Control and Elimination.
Low-income country In 2015 the World Bank classified as low-income those countries with a 2014 GNI per capita of $1,045 or less. See here for further details.
Middle-income country In 2015 the World Bank classified those countries with a 2014 GNI per capita of $1,046 - $4,125 as lower middle-income; and $4,126 - $12,735 as upper middle-income. See here for further details.
Multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) A product that combines a platform technology or contraceptive device with one or more drug/s, and addresses two or more reproductive health indications, e.g. an intravaginal contraceptive ring that also provides protection against HIV.
Neglected disease For the purposes of the G-FINDER survey, the term neglected disease is used to refer to diseases that have a higher incidence or different disease profile in developing countries. These factors have led to a lack of R&D investment in developing country-specific product development. For further detail about the diseases included in our survey, please see Neglected diseases included in G-FINDER.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) The OECD includes Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States.
Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) Blood loss of 500ml or more within 24 hours after birth, resulting from failure of the uterus to contract adequately, genital tract trauma (i.e. vaginal or cervical lacerations), uterine rupture, retained placental tissue or maternal bleeding disorders.
Reproductive health area For the purposes of the G-FINDER survey, the term reproductive health area refers to the subset of reproductive health R&D that is directed at developing country needs, where a product gap exists because there is no developed country market to stimulate R&D.
Like the G-FINDER neglected diseases survey, only health technology products (e.g. drugs, contraceptive devices) are included; health innovations such as surgical procedures are excluded. For further detail about the reproductive health areas included in our survey, please see Reproductive health areas included in G-FINDER.
Self-funding Refers to funding that originates within an organisation for R&D activities carried out by that organisation; also referred to as intramural funding and internal funding.
Adapted from the Malaria R&D Alliance 2005 Global Malaria Funding Survey.
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) Any of a group of bacterial, fungal, viral infections and parasites that are transmitted during sexual activity.
Type of funder The nature of the funding organisation.
Philanthropic
Private organisations, including not-for-profit trusts, foundations, corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and individuals (e.g. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, Rockefeller Foundation), and corporate donors.
Adapted from the Malaria R&D Alliance 2005 Global Malaria Funding Survey.
Private sector
Aggregate pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including multinational pharmaceutical companies (MNCs) and small pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies (SMEs).
MNCs are pharmaceutical companies with revenues of over $10bn per annum which are privately owned or publicly traded, and conduct their business in many countries (e.g. Pfizer, GSK, Novartis).
SMEs are those with revenues of less than $10bn per annum which are privately owned or publicly traded, and conduct the majority of their business in one country (e.g. Bavarian Nordic, Amyris Biotechnologies).
Public sector - Governments
Governments, government agencies, and government-affiliated research institutions (e.g. UK Department for International Development (DFID), US Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission). This category includes government research institutions, academic and other research institutions and public sector pharmaceutical companies.
Public sector - Multilaterals
International organisations that are funded by contributions from member state governments (e.g. World Bank).
Type of recipient The nature of the recipient organisation.
Academic and other research institutions
Organisations funded by, affiliated with and/or managed by universities or other academic organisations (e.g. Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, Institut Pasteur, Brigham and Women's hospital).
Aggregate pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies
Includes both MNCs and SMEs.
Government research institutions
Institutions which are funded and/or managed by governments or government agencies (e.g. Australian Army Malaria Institute, French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm), Japan BCG Laboratory).
Other intermediary
Intermediary organisations receive funds and disburse them to external product developers but do not engage in partnerships or actively manage R&D projects.
Private sector philanthropic foundations, trusts, NGOs, corporate donors
Private organisations, including not-for-profit trusts, foundations, corporations and individuals (e.g. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, Rockefeller Foundation), and corporate donors.
Adapted from the Malaria R&D Alliance 2005 Global Malaria Funding Survey.
Product development partnership (PDP)
Public health driven, not-for-profit organisations that typically use private sector management practices to drive product development in conjunction with external partners. PDPs tend to focus on one or more neglected disease or reproductive health areas and aim to develop products suitable for developing country use. While their primary goal is the advancement of public health rather than commercial gain, they generally use industry practices in their R&D activities, for instance portfolio management and industrial project management. Additionally, many PDPs conduct global advocacy to raise awareness of their target areas.
Public sector government
Governments or government agencies and branches (e.g. UK DFID, USAID, the European Commission).
Public sector multilaterals
International organisations that are funded by contributions from member state governments (e.g. World Bank).
Adapted from the Malaria R&D Alliance 2005 Global Malaria Funding Survey.
Public sector pharmaceutical companies
Pharmaceutical companies that are funded by, located within and/or managed by governments or government agencies (e.g. Bio Farma).